History of Artificial Intelligence
In 1931, Gödel layed the foundation of Theoretical Computer Science. He published the first universal formal language and showed that math itself is either flawed or allows for unprovable but true statements.
In 1936, Turing reformulated Gödel's result and introduced the Turing machine, which became the main tool of computer science theory. In 1950 he invented a subjective test to decide whether something is intelligent
In the 1940s Konrad Zuse devised the first high-level programming language, and wrote the first chess program. From 1935-1941 he built the first working program-controlled computers.
John McCarthy coined the term "AI" in the 1950s. Practical AI of the 60s and 70s was dominated by rule-based expert systems and Logic Programming.
In the 1980s and 90s, mainstream AI accepted probability theory (Bayesian Networks, probability nets, causal nets, etc).
In the 1990s and 2000s, much of the progress in practical AI was due to better hardware, getting roughly 1000 times faster per dollar per decade. Some examples include Deep Blue which beat chess world champion Kasparov and the AI controlled car developed by Dickmans which autonomously drove 1000 miles in traffic at up to 120mph.